Christian Flor (1626–1697), Johann Abraham Peter Schulz (1747–1800): Texte und Dokumente zur Musikgeschichte Lüneburgs. Edited by Friedrich Jekutsch, Joachim Kremer, and Arndt Schnoor. Veröffentlichungen der Ratsbücherei Lüneburg, 6; Musik der frühen Neuzeit, 2. Hamburg: von Bockel Verlag, 1997. [263 pp. ISBN 3-932696-04-2. DM 30 ($20).]
Reviewed by Dianne M. McMullen*
1.1 The year 1997 marked important anniversaries of two men with ties to Lüneburg: the 300th anniversary of the death of Christian Flor and the 250th of the birth of Johann Abraham Peter Schulz. This volume of essays was produced by a team of several scholars, with the support of the city of Lüneburgs Ratsbücherei. In the same year the city mounted an exhibition about Flor and Schulz, to which some references are made in the book.
1.2 Christian Flors connection with the city was long-standing. Born in Neukirchen in Holstein in 1626, he moved to Lüneburg in 1654 at the latest and remained there until he died 43 years later. Schulz was born and received his earliest musical education in Lüneburg, but he moved away at the age of 18. He maintained some contact with his birthplace in later years. The volume is weighted toward Flor, with five original essays about him and only one new essay about Schulz. A second lengthy essay about Schulz is a reprint.
2.1 Christian Flor, immediate predecessor to Georg Böhm as organist at Lüneburgs St. Johannis church, composed one of the earliest oratorio Passions. He is probably best known as the composer of music for two volumes of poetry by Johann Rist (1607–1667), a well-known theologian and poet. Flors keyboard music is becoming better known through editions and facsimiles.
2.2 Arndt Schnoors essay, Christian Flor und das Lüneburger Musikleben seiner Zeit, offers details about the gradual rise in the quality of the citys musical life from 1650 through the end of the century. The reader learns almost as much about Flors Lüneburg colleagues, including Michael Jacobi, Christian Görtner, Friedrich Funke, and Johann Jacob Löwe, as he does about Flor. In addition, Schnoor provides archival documents, such as Flors 1689 evaluation of the glockenspiel at the Lüneburg Rathaus. Schnoors Christian Flors Werke für Tasteninstrumente is a brief study which points out general stylistic traits. Appended to the essay is a modern edition of Flors E-major suite.
2.3 The longest essay about Flor in the volume is Joachim Kremers Der kunstbemühte Meister: Christian Flor als Liedkomponist Johann Rists. Kremer is also author of a book on the north German Kantorat in Hamburg.1 Johann Rist collaborated with a number of composers in his quest for the perfect sacred music, engaging Flor for two of his last three collections of sacred poems. The two collections, both entitled Neues Musikalisches Seelenparadies, were published in Lüneburg in 1660 and 1662. In the face of criticism that his melodies were too florid, Flor demonstrated that they could be reduced to simple chorale melodies. Nevertheless, the melodies as published remained beyond the reach of congregational singers. To criticism from Rist that Flors melodies did not suit the affect of all stanzas, Flor replied that Rist always sent him just the first strophe. Kremer documents the controversy over Flors music well, including several musical examples. In the latter part of the essay Kremer discusses Rists and Flors connections to Pietism. Kremers . . . tanzet, springet in die Wette . . .: Über Christian Flors Vokalkompositionen focuses on Flors music for special occasions, such as weddings and funerals. Kremer analyzes and provides the music for the 1659 wedding composition, Auf, hört ihr meine Sinnen. He also analyzes and gives musical examples from the funeral composition, Es ist gnug.
2.4 In his Zum Nachwirken Christian Flors, Schnoor concludes that not enough of Flors works are extant to make a proper judgment about Flors influence. It is noteworthy, as he points out, that some of Flors works are to be found in the Uppsala Düben Collection. Also significant is the fact that both J.G. Walther and J. Mattheson include Flor in their lexicons. Hilde Szwerinskis Verzeichnis der erhaltenen und nachweisbaren Werke Christian Flors sowie der von ihm aufgezeichneten Kompositionen is a useful catalogue, including information about extant copies and modern editions of Flors music. Bruce Gustafsons facsimile edition of Lüneburg, Ratsbücherei, Mus. ant. pract. 1198 makes Flors music more widely available than it previously was.2
2.5 Friedrich Jekutschs Ausstellungskatalog Christian Flor lists the items of the 1997 exhibition. Altogether there are 47 items organized under six categories: Early Years, Musical Life in Lüneburg in the 17th Century, Organist at St. Lamberti and St. Johannis, Flors Compositions, Flor as Adjudicator of Organs, and Death and Influence. Among the most interesting items displayed were those from the Lüneburg Stadtarchiv in Flors hand. These included his 1663 application for the cantors position at St. Johannis and his 1676 application for the organists position at the same church. It also included a document which Flor, together with organists from two other churches, wrote to the Lüneburg city council complaining of the their poor salaries.
2.6 Hilde Szwerinskis Auswahlbibliographie
is divided into three parts: (1) lexicons, catalogues, and handbooks;
(2) secondary literature; and (3) music editions. The only noteworthy
omission I found is Gustav Focks book on the organists of the Johannis
church.3 Those with
an interest in Lüneburgs musical life in the Baroque period might also
turn to Harald Müllers Ulrich Johann Voigt, 1669–1732: Stadtmusikus
zu Celle und Lüneburg.4
3.1 The leader of the so-called Second Berlin Song School, J.A.P. Schulz was not just a composer, but also a writer about music. A student of Johann Philipp Kirnberger, Schulz played a major role in the writing of Kirnbergers Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste (1771–1774) and Die wahren Grundsätze zum Gebrauch der Harmonie (1773). Schulzs most influential work as a composer was Lieder im Volkston (1782, 1785–1790), a work in which he sought simultaneously to heighten the meaning of the text and to create folk-like melodies. Schulz also composed music for the stage.
3.2 Heinz Gottwaldt is known to scholars in the field as the editor of Schulzs music for Racines Athalie.5 His contribution about Schulz in the present volume, published here as two essays, first appeared in three parts in Lüneburger Blätter (vol. 6, 1955 and vol. 11/12, 1961). It is entitled Johann Abraham Peter Schulz: autobiographische Skizze. The original copy of Schulzs autobiography is now lost, but later copies survive. In extensive commentaries following passages from the autobiography, Gottwaldt provides relevant historical and sociological information. He also corrects inaccuracies in Schulzs text. Arndt Schnoor, in a new essay entitled Johann Abraham Peter Schulz: Weltbürger und musicus politicus, follows up on the Gottwaldt essay. Schnoor describes well the changing role of the church in the musical life of Germany in the late eighteenth century. One understands why Schulz was not content to follow a path similar to Flor. Schnoor culls materials from late twentieth-century German and Danish scholarship in his sketch of Schulzs relationships with his employers and other political figures.
3.3 Friedrich Jekutschs Ausstellungskatalog Johann Abraham Peter Schulz contains a record of the 42 items displayed in the 1997 Lüneburg exhibition. They are divided into six categories: Places Important in Schulzs Life, Vocal Compositions, Instrumental Compositions, Theoretical Writings, Compositions Based on Melodies by Schulz, and Works about Johann Abraham Peter Schulz.
3.4 There is no separate bibliography for
Schulz, as there is for Flor. Schnoors article on Schulz contains a selected
bibliography at the end which serves the purposes of that article. Among
other articles about Schulz are the following: Wilhelm Schulte, J.A.P.
Schulz, a Protagonist of the Musical Enlightenment: Lieder im Volkston,6Jürgen
Mainka, Berlin (1774) - Rheinsberg (1784) - Copenhagen (1790). Hofzeremoniell
Churgin, The Symphony as Described by J.A.P. Schulz (1774): A Commentary
O. Falconer, The Second Berlin Song School in America,9 and Jürgen Mainka, J.A.P. Schulz Athalia - Ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung
der Beziehungen des Sturm und Drang zum Klassizismus.10
4.1 The volume is free of significant misprints. On page 179, at the start of the editors note, Hans Gottwaldt should read Heinz Gottwaldt.
4.2 The essays in this book bring together two figures who lived in Lüneburg about a century apart. Comparisons between the two eras are not made. On the other hand, these essays go far beyond the boundaries of Lüneburg. For example, Schnoors and Gottwaldts essays describe all of Schulzs life, much of which was spent in Berlin, Rheinsberg, and Copenhagen. Because of the depth and wide-ranging nature of these essays, the authors have given a significant historical view of the city.
*Dianne M. McMullen (firstname.lastname@example.org)
is Assistant Professor of Music and College Organist at Union College
in Schenectady, NY. Her current research focuses on Renaissance dance
music and on the German Lutheran chorale at the time of J.S. Bach.
1. Joachim Kremer, Das norddeutsche Kantorat
im 18. Jahrhundert: Untersuchungen am Beispiel Hamburgs (Kassel: Börenreiter,
2. Lüneburg, Ratsbücherei, Mus. ant. pract. 1198.
Introduction by Bruce Gustafson. 17th-Century Keyboard Music 22 (New York:
3. Gustav Fock, Die Organisten der Lüneburger
Johanniskirche 1593–1921 (Hamburg-Blankenese, 1940). See especially
4. Harald Müller, Ulrich Johann Voigt, 1669–1732:
Stadtmusikus zu Celle und Lüneburg, Schriftenreihe des Bomann-Museums
und des Stadtarchivs Celle, 12 (Celle: Stadt Celle, 1985).
5. Musik zu Racines Athalie, ed. Heinz Gottwaldt.
Das Erbe deutscher Musik 71 (Mainz: Schott, 1977).
6. Wilhelm Schulte, J.A.P. Schulz, a Protagonist
of the Musical Enlightenment: Lieder im Volkston, Music Research
Forum 3 (1988): 23–34.
7. Jürgen Mainka, Berlin (1774) - Rheinsberg (1784)
- Kopenhagen (1790). Hofzeremoniell und Musikstruktur, Beiträge zur
Musikwissenschaft 23 (1981): 212–43.
8. Bathia Churgin, The Symphony as Described by
J.A.P. Schulz (1774): A Commentary and Translation, Current Musicology 29 (1980): 6–16.
9. Joan O. Falconer, The Second Berlin Song School
in America, The Musical Quarterly 19 (1973): 411–40.
10. Jürgen Mainka, J.A.P. Schulz Athalia - Ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung der Beziehungen des Sturm und Drang zum
Klassizismus, Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 13 (1971): 273–320.
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