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Volume 8, number 1

Jeffrey Kurtzman and Linda Maria Koldau

Trombe, Trombe d'argento, Trombe squarciate, Tromboni, and Pifferi in Venetian Processions and Ceremonies of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries


An examination of the use of instruments in Venetian processions and religious services against the backdrop of other Italian cities. Explores the use of the trombe d'argento of the doge, the pifferi of the doge (shawms, cornettos and trombones), other trumpets and drums, and other instruments in ducal processions, in processions of the scuole grandi and piccole, and other ceremonies. Trombe squarciate (used in Monteverdi's so-called "Mass of Thanksgiving")are identified as mid-length straight trumpets on the basis of etymology, iconography, chroniclers' accounts and archival documents.

I. Introduction

            1. Prologue
            2. Trumpets and Trombones in European Music before the Eighteenth Century
            3. Pifferi in European Music before the Eighteenth Century
            4. The Civic Trumpets and Pifferi of Siena
            5. Civic Trumpet Ensembles and Pifferi in other Italian Cities
                        Other Cities

II. Trumpets, Pifferi and Other Instruments in Venetian Processions and Ceremonies

            6. Venetian Processions and Ceremonies
            7. Descriptions of Venetian Ducal Processions (Andate)
            8. Trombe d'argento in Venetian Ducal Processions 
            9. Trombe d'argento and the Busine 
            10. Pifferi in Venetian Ducal Processions 
            11. Other Instruments in Ducal Processions
            12. Trumpets and Pifferi in St. Mark's and other Major Churches
            13. The Use of Trumpets and Pifferi by the Scuole grandi
            14. The Use of Trumpets and Pifferi by the Scuole piccole
            15. Funeral Processions and Ceremonies

III. Pictorial Representations of Venetian Processions

            16. Gentile Bellini's Processione della Croce in Piazza San Marco of 1496
            17. Matteo Pagan's Woodcut of a Ducal Procession, 1556–59
            18. Jost Amman's Woodcut of a Ducal Procession, c. 1560
            19. Trombe d'argento and Pifferi in Giacomo Franco's Engravings of 1610
            20. The Procession of J. van Vianen Published by Pieter van der Aa
            21.Comparison of Bellini's, Pagan's, Amman's, Franco's and Vianen's Processions
            22. The Coronation of the Dogaressa Morosina Morosini Grimani in 1597 
            23. Vicentino's Paintings of the Coronation of the Dogaressa 
            24. Giacomo Franco's Engravings of the Coronation of the Dogaressa 
            25. Giovanni Grevembroch's Illustration of Trombe d'argento
            26. Grevembroch's Illustration of a Suonatore di Piffero
            27. Iconographical Representations of Heraldic Trumpets
            28. Mid-length Straight Trumpets in Venetian Iconography
            29. Iconographical Allegories with Mid-length and Short Straight Trumpets
            30. Categories of Iconography: Heavenly and Mythical Allegorical Scenes
            31. Categories of Iconography: Allegories of Religious Events
            32. Categories of Iconography: Historical Events

IV. Descriptions in Venetian Chronicles of Trombe, Trombe squarciate, and Pifferi 

            33. Marin Sanudo's References to Trombe squarciate
            34. Summary of Marin Sanudo's Instrumental Terminology
            35. Further References to Trombe and Pifferi in Venetian Chronicles and Documents
            36. Association of Trumpets with Drums

V. Unraveling the Identity of Trombe squarciate

            37. The Etymology and Meaning of the Term Tromba squarciata
            38. Extant Mid-length Straight Trumpets
            39. Trumpet Bells in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
            40. Wide Trumpet Bells in Venetian Iconography
            41. Summary of Types of Trumpets in Venetian Iconography
            42. Size and Pitch of Trombe squarciate
            43. Trombe squarciate in Monteverdi's "Mass of Thanksgiving," November 21, 1631
            44. Contradictory Evidence: Trombones and the Term Squarciato
            45. A Hypothesis about Trumpets in Venice
            46. Summary of Argument Regarding Trombe squarciate



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